Centrul național de transfuzie a sângelui

Frequently asked questions

What is blood transfusion?

Blood transfusion is a medical procedure that transfers blood or blood components from a healthy donor to a person in need. The main purpose of blood transfusion is to replace or supplement deficient blood components in the patient's body. Before a blood transfusion is performed, rigorous tests are carried out to ensure compatibility between donor and recipient, and to reduce the risk of adverse reactions. Blood components that can be transfused include red blood cells, plasma, platelets and granulocytes, depending on the patient's needs.

Indications for blood transfusions

Blood transfusions may be indicated in a number of medical situations. Here are some of the main indications for blood transfusion: severe anaemia, acute blood loss, haematological disorders, clotting disorders, renal disorders. It is important to note that specific indications for blood transfusion are determined by medical specialists, depending on the clinical situation of each patient. The decision to perform a blood transfusion is based on a careful assessment of the expected benefits, the risks involved and the immediate need.

When is a blood transfusion necessary?

A blood transfusion is necessary in a variety of medical situations. Here are some of them:

 

  • Massive blood loss: If a person suffers a serious trauma, such as a car accident or major surgery, a transfusion may be needed to replace the large volume of blood lost. 
  • Severe anaemia: Anaemia is a condition characterised by low levels of red blood cells or haemoglobin in the blood. In severe cases of anaemia, particularly when the cause is excessive blood loss or reduced blood production, a blood transfusion may be required to increase haemoglobin levels.
  • Blood disorders: There are certain medical conditions, such as leukaemia, lymphoma and certain clotting disorders, that may require regular blood transfusions to maintain adequate levels of blood cells and clotting factors.
  • Complications during pregnancy or childbirth: Some complications of pregnancy, such as placenta previa or pre-eclampsia, can lead to severe bleeding and may require blood transfusions. Also, in cases where the mother suffers a haemorrhage during childbirth, blood transfusion may be necessary to correct massive blood loss.
  • Surgical procedures: Before certain surgical procedures, especially those involving internal organs, preventive blood transfusions may be performed to prevent excessive blood loss during surgery. It is important to note that the decision to perform a blood transfusion is based on the medical assessment of each individual case. The medical team considers the patient's symptoms, blood tests and general condition to determine the need for a transfusion.

Blood donation

Although blood is made up of the same basic elements, not all blood is the same. In fact, there are 8 common types of red blood cells, which are determined by the presence or absence of certain types of antigens. Because certain antigens can trigger a patient's immune system to attack red blood cells received by transfusion, blood therapy involves carefully choosing the right blood groups.

Who is eligible to donate blood and plasma?

To be eligible to donate blood and plasma, individuals must meet the following criteria:

 

  • Age: Typically, donors must be between the ages of 18 and 65.
  • Weight: Donors must have an appropriate body weight for their height.
  • General health: Individuals must be in good health with no serious or chronic medical conditions.
  • Medical history: Certain medical conditions and medications may temporarily or permanently disqualify a person from donating.
  • Travel history and exposure to disease: Certain recent travel to areas at high risk of communicable diseases may affect donor eligibility.

How long does a donation session last?

Blood donation: A typical blood donation session takes around 10 to 15 minutes to collect the blood itself. However, the entire process can take about 30 minutes to an hour, including the entire workflow, preparation and completion of registration forms, and preliminary medical screening.

Plasma donation: A plasma donation session can take longer than blood donation because during the blood process of plasmapheresis, blood is taken up by a special machine that separates the plasma from the other blood components and returns the blood cells back into the donor's body.

The average duration of a plasmapheresis session is about 40-50 minutes. However, this time can vary depending on the amount of plasma collected and the skills of the technicians performing the procedure. Cytopheresis: Cytopheresis is a special procedure used to collect specific blood cells, such as stem cells or white blood cells. The duration of a cytopheresis session can vary considerably (1 hour - 1.5 hours) depending on the specific treatment goals and protocol. It can last from a few hours to several hours over several days, depending on the patient's individual needs.

Donarea de sânge: Intervalul minim recomandat între donări este de 5 săptămâni (aproximativ 35 de zile). Aceasta asigură timp suficient pentru ca organismul să se recupereze și să regenereze celulele sanguine donate.

Donarea de plasmă: Intervalul de timp recomandat între donări poate fi mai scurt pentru plasmă decât pentru sânge integral. Acest lucru se datorează faptului că, după donarea de plasmă, celulele sanguine sunt returnate în corp, iar procesul de refacere este mai rapid decât în cazul donării de sânge integral. În multe țări, intervalul minim între donațiile de plasmă este de aproximativ 2 săptămâni.